Metaphysics and mushrooms: Psychedelics can change how you think about the universe
Research shows that psilocybin leads people away from materialism and toward transcendentalism. Apparently, mushrooms teach metaphysics.
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with “being.” A new study finds that a single trip on a psychedelic can cause lasting changes in a person’s metaphysical beliefs. Overall, people moved away from “hard materialism” to more transcendental, idealistic, and supernatural views of the cosmos.
After decades of being shunned, psychedelics are enjoying a biomedical renaissance because many of them show great promise in treating a variety of mental health conditions when used in tightly controlled environments. Now, a new study, soon to be published in Scientific Reports, claims that psychedelics can change a person’s beliefs about metaphysics.
Of metaphysics and mushrooms
Everyone has metaphysical beliefs, even if they are unaware of them. For example, many people have an intuitive belief in mind-body duality (that is, the mind and body are separable) even if they have never heard of the term. These beliefs are often associated with certain behaviors as well, with dualists taking less care of their bodies than physicalists, who argue that the mind is part of the body. Similar relationships between metaphysical beliefs and human behavior can be found elsewhere. Those who believe in free will are less likely to lie, cheat, and be aggressive.
Sharpening one’s understanding of metaphysics can be accomplished with various methods, such as meditation. Near death experiences often do the same. One commonly discussed but less investigated method is psychedelic drug use. While many anecdotes suggest that psychedelics cause people to adopt a non-materialist view of the cosmos, hard data was lacking. After all, it could just be that those already predisposed to idealism — the notion that fundamental reality is mental rather than physical — are also more likely to try these drugs.
In the first attempt to confirm and quantify these effects, a team of researchers led by Dr. Christopher Timmermann of the Centre for Psychedelic Research at the Imperial College London gauged the metaphysical stances of several hundred people before and after they tripped in a ritualistic setting.
Philosophy, drugs, and rock ‘n’ roll
The study came in two parts. In the first, nearly 900 volunteers who signed up to attend a psychedelic ceremony were recruited to answer a series of questions — for instance, on realms of existence — aimed at determining their baseline metaphysical beliefs. After the ceremony (in which psilocybin was used), the volunteers were asked to complete the survey again four weeks and six months later.
In general, users reported moving away from belief in materialism or physicalism — that is, the idea that the universe is primarily physical rather than mental or spiritual — and toward other views such as transcendentalism, non-naturalism, or idealism. Effects were seen at both four weeks and six months, and the effects were largest for those who were taking the drug for the first time. Another important change was the drift from hardline stances of any kind toward more mixed or moderate views. Participants also reported improved mental health.
The clinical trial was similar but involved only 60 participants. Half were given escitalopram (an antidepressant) and the other half psilocybin. The results were largely the same, with the psilocybin group experiencing a shift away from hard materialism toward more transcendental, idealistic, and supernatural conceptions of the universe.
Overall, the psychedelic experience moved people away from a “hard materialist” view. However, regardless of belief (in materialism or dualism), people tended to moderate their views after taking the drug — as if psychedelics made people more tolerant of uncertainty.
In an email to BigThink, Dr. Timmermann summarized the findings by explaining:
“…[t]hat we provide evidence for the first time that psychedelics shift beliefs concerning the nature of reality. These beliefs are central to the way human beings organize society and may correspond to deeply rooted worldviews. Specifically, we found that people rejected the notion of physicalism (the idea that the world is made up of material, as opposed to mental or spiritual things) after a single psychedelic experience, endorsed the notion of fate more, and also the idea that all things in the universe are conscious, what we call panpsychism. Importantly, we found that these changes were related to improvements in mental health.”
The authors note that it is beyond the scope of the paper to draw any conclusions regarding which metaphysical system is best for mental health. They do speculate that very stringent beliefs of any kind about metaphysics are unhealthy. Finally, the authors advise that future studies involving psychedelics warn participants that their worldviews may be altered by their participation. Caveat emptor: Acid might change your perspective on panpsychism.
Story from Big Think
Mark Messier on leadership, trust and magic mushrooms
The hockey icon talks with Marie-Danielle Smith about mental health, hockey violence—and what he’ll do when the New York Rangers call
By Marie-Danielle Smith – October 21, 2021
He’s a six-time Stanley Cup winner, the second most prolific playoff-points scorer ever, a two-time most valuable player in the NHL, a 15-time all-star and the only person ever to captain two different teams to Stanley Cup championships—the Edmonton Oilers, even after the departure of his great friend Wayne Gretzky, and the New York Rangers.
First he was “the Moose,” then he was “the Messiah,” according to New Yorkers—that’s a play on his last name—for ending a 54-year Stanley Cup drought in 1994. He’s an officer of the Order of Canada. And he’s now the author of a memoir he hopes will convey the lessons he learned along the way.
Mark Messier chatted with me ahead of the release of No One Wins Alone, authored with writer Jimmy Roberts. Our conversation has been edited for length and clarity.
Q: Your book is a meditation on leadership as much as it is a memoir. What’s the biggest lesson you’re hoping people will draw from it?
A: One of the questions I get all the time is: what’s the single most important lesson of leadership? I’m not sure there’s an answer because it’s so multidimensional. I do know that earning trust is just massive and earning the right to lead the people is critical. You know, Abe Lincoln said no man can govern another without his consent. You can’t expect to lead people unless you’ve earned that right.
Q: How do you earn it?
A: It always starts with trust. One of the most important things I did with the players I played with was getting to know them on a more personal level. Taking the time to understand where they came from. Understanding who they are as people and spending as much time as possible with them away from the rink so you develop a relationship that is deeper than a professional relationship.
John Wooden, a great basketball coach, said great coaching is being able to give correction without resentment. When you’ve got to be honest with a player and he might not like it but he doesn’t hold it against you or think you have something against him as a person. As a leader you’ve got to be able to go home at night and put your head on the pillow and know it’s up to him to resolve the issue.
Q: You talk about the importance of connection between teammates. Your relationship with Wayne Gretzky shines through as a critical one.
A: It’s not very often that you can look at someone eight days younger than you and look at them as a role model. Normally you get that from folks who are much older than you, who have been around with much more experience. But our best example was the same age as us. We’re all grateful that the stars collided and that we all came together at the same time.
Q: How important is it to see your teammates as friends?
A: When we talk about being brothers, I don’t think we reference each other like that lightly. Maybe you don’t need to have that in order to win, I don’t know—I didn’t have that experience on the teams I was fortunate enough to win with. Maybe you can win without that real tight level of friendship.
Q: How important is it to believe you’re going to win, and to be able to say that out loud?
A: I don’t think you can be afraid to fail. I think you really need to be forthright in your objective. For us in hockey at a professional level, you have a very defined goal of what success is. You can have smaller goals along the way and celebrate those goals, but ultimately you’re there for one reason and that’s to win a Stanley Cup. It might take some time to build a team and get some experience and put the pieces in place to do that. But you always have to have in the back of your mind on a day-to-day basis: are we closer to winning a Stanley Cup or are we further away?
And making sure that everybody in the organization, whether they’re on the ice as a player, or with a trainer or a doctor, physicians, therapists, equipment managers, managers, coaches, everybody is there with the same goal in mind, believing in the philosophy and the vision of the team and the culture the team created. Then you just start chopping wood and carrying water toward that goal.
Q: You probably get this question all the time, but is there a moment you would pick out as your ultimate career highlight?
A: To come to New York and win a championship that hadn’t been won in 54 years was incredible. And it’s pretty remarkable what happened in Edmonton, coming from an expansion team to winning the Stanley Cup, and going on to win five cups in seven years. I just can’t compartmentalize one moment in a career over 26 years. There’s too many special moments and they’re all different in their own rights.
Q: The game has changed a lot since you started playing, especially in the physicality. What do you think of how hockey has evolved?
A: I’m happy the game has evolved in so many ways. They’ve made changes to the game to get the speed and the finesse and the artistry back into the game, instead of hooking and clutching and holding and grabbing. They opened up the game to more excitement for the fans. It’s a better product when the game is played like that. There’s still plenty of physicality.
The equipment has changed. Technology has entered into hockey like every other sport, not only with the equipment but with the training. The players are making incredible use of science now to train all year round. So many things have advanced in the sport, but ultimately in the end the game is still won on the ice between the boards. It always gets down to a test of will, and that’s what makes hockey so great.
Q: There’s a scene in the book where your son is looking at old videos and he says something like, “You’d be in jail for some of those hits if they happened now.” How do you talk to your kids, and young people, about how things used to be and how much has changed?
A: I think we all recognize that as the game evolved and concussions started to enter into sports, if things didn’t change, the game wouldn’t last. So the game had to evolve and I’m glad both the NHLPA and the NHL took a collaborative effort to do that, and the players took the responsibility to change the way the game was played.
I don’t think anybody’s proud of some of the things that happened back in the day, but it was a different landscape back then. Intimidation was a huge part of hockey. [The game] evolved into something that is acceptable with all the social media applications and video reviews. You can’t get away with anything.
Some of our games back when I first started playing professional hockey weren’t even televised. There wasn’t even a camera in the rink. And we’ve brought the fans closer to the game. The fans are more knowledgeable about what’s going on, not only on the ice but also behind the scenes. The culture of professional sports is more exposed than ever.
Q: There seems to be no room for error with social media. What do you think about what young players are dealing with today?
A: There’s a different kind of pressure on the players now that we were never exposed to, socially, politically, and the choices they make and the way they represent not only the team but also the league and the community.
What it really boils down to is character becomes high-stakes, or of very high importance. To be able to handle it all. We don’t expect anybody not to make mistakes, mistakes are part of life, it’s how you learn, it’s how you grow, it’s how you evolve. So I think there’s some forgiveness for a mistake but there’s not forgiveness for a history of certain actions that aren’t acceptable anymore.
Q: Are you worried that forgiveness isn’t always extended to people who might deserve it? The online mob kind of picks its targets.
A: If you go down the rabbit hole of getting acceptance from people online, that’s a dangerous place to be. I don’t think it’s a good idea for anybody to be looking there for self-worth or validation, acceptance, because as we know there are people who just don’t have anything better to do who will be hurtful. It’s not a good place to be looking for that kind of information.
Q: Younger athletes are applauded today for talking about the pressure they’re under, and prioritizing their mental health even if it means taking time away from competing. Do you think that’s a good thing?
A: Everybody needs help no matter what position you’re in, no matter where you are in your own life. The biggest thing that has come out of all of this is that there’s no shame in admitting any problem, and seeking help has been very productive and helpful for a lot of folks.
Q: You talk in the book about conquering negative self-talk and learning to think positively about yourself. Were there times when that was hard for you?
A: I didn’t think about it much as a young player, to be honest with you. I had a lot of confidence. But everybody struggles. Even at the peak of my career I would struggle at times. I was fortunate enough that we had sports psychology seminars at a very early age, basically the first year of my career when I was 18 years old. I kept it with me my whole career.
Self-confidence is huge and a big part of that is self-talk—when things aren’t going well, not to be negative. You have to figure out what went wrong so you’re able to move on from any failure.
Q: You describe taking magic mushrooms at 19 as a transformative experience. Tell me more about how your perspective expanded.
A: Well that’s what it did for me. I had no idea the mind was that powerful. And how could eating a natural mushroom that was organically grown create that kind of stimulus? Obviously it turned out to be an amazing experience, but more important was the question afterwards: wow, how can I use my mind to empower myself to be a better player, to be a better person, to have more energy, to create a better aura?
So then I became interested in Eastern philosophy, meditation, Buddhism, the spirituality of Indigenous peoples. The power of the mind.
Q: Is spirituality still a big part of your life?
A: It’s always been a big part of my life. I grew up Catholic but was interested in a lot of Eastern philosophy. So I think spirituality became more important to me than the so-called religion I grew up with.
Q: You obviously took leadership lessons from these philosophies. You even end the book with a quote from a Hindu text.
A: There are so many powerful lessons to be learned about the goodness that lives in everybody’s heart. And creating a culture that is just so rich with humility and passion and creativity and all the things that make it fun to come to the rink, or to come to work. It’s the essence of a team that can go all the way. A unique environment with the diversity of the players, of where they come from, and their ideas. And really acknowledging that and letting people shine in their own ways.
Q: You talk about the importance of diversity and making people feel comfortable, but people of colour haven’t always felt comfortable in the NHL. What are your thoughts on that?
A: I know a huge mandate—from the NHL, the NHLPA and everybody involved with the league—is to grow the game. Diversify the game. Give more kids—more girls, more boys—access, opportunity. And it just makes sense. The Kingsbridge [Armory] project I was doing in the Bronx, that’s what it was for, to grow the game and its diversity by creating access and opportunity that are just not there right now. The NHL has immersed themselves in communities and they’ve taught boys and girls the game of hockey who’ve become fans and who are going to continue to get more people of colour involved in the game.
Q: Do you think that in the past there were failures of leadership on this?
A: I can’t speak to that myself. I don’t know enough to say yes or no. I think creating access and opportunity is a huge first step.
Q: Would you be tempted to get involved in the NHL again as a coach or a manager?
A: I think I’ve always felt I could help an organization in many ways. But it’s important to be with people who believe you can help. If it happens, great. If it doesn’t happen, that’s okay as well. If the occasion ever came where someone thought I could help them, I would be more than happy to have that conversation.
Q: If the New York Rangers called, would you go for it?
A: I don’t work in hypotheticals. If the right person thought I could help their team, I’d be more than willing to listen.
Story from – MacLean
Ketamine and psilocybin, better known as party drugs, showing promise for treatment of mood disorders
Chad Derrick, W5 producer and Avery Haines, W5 correspondent
Saturday, October 23, 2021
TORONTO — It’s been more than a decade since Bruno Guevremont returned to Canada from his military deployment to Afghanistan. Like so many other veterans, Guevremont’s combat experiences took a mental toll.
During his second tour in 2009, Guevremont was part of a team that dismantled IEDs, or improvised explosive devices.
One incident, in particular, changed him. Guevremont says he was the first Canadian soldier ever to defuse a suicide vest on a living person. But it wasn’t the high degree of danger in that situation that affected him.
“The suicide bomber was mentally challenged. He had been told that if he doesn’t do this, then they were going to kill his family,” Guevremont told W5 correspondent Avery Haines. “So that started playing with my mind.”
After his return to Canada, Guevremont suffered panic attacks and suicidal thoughts. He was diagnosed with PTSD, depression and anxiety.
When talk therapy and anti-depressants didn’t help, Guevremont sought alternatives in an attempt to recover his mental health. He joined an Arctic expedition with other veterans in 2014, captained Team Canada at the 2016 Invictus Games, and became a mental health spokesperson for Bell Let’s Talk Day.
Then, in March, 2020, the COVID-19 lockdown sent Guevremont into a tailspin, and he contemplated suicide again.
“I started getting really depressed, started getting dark thoughts,” he told W5.
That’s when Guevremont learned about an unconventional treatment for severe depression and PTSD, involving the drug ketamine.
Ketamine is notorious for being a hallucinogenic party drug nicknamed Special K, a veterinary tranquilizer and an anesthetic that’s been used in hospitals for over 50 years. But at sub-anesthetic doses, the drug has shown an ability to quickly reduce symptoms of depression and suicidal thinking, within weeks to hours.
“The magnitude of improvement on the symptoms approaches in many studies between 40 to 70 percent improvement within a couple of weeks,” noted Dr. Roger McIntyre, a professor of Psychiatry and Pharmacology at the University of Toronto. In 2018, McIntyre founded the Canadian Rapid Treatment Center of Excellence (CRTCE) – Canada’s first private clinic to offer ketamine treatments for depression.
The Canadian Mental Health Association reports that approximately five per cent of Canadians are affected by major depression and more than 4,000 Canadians died by suicide in 2019.
“This is truly a breakthrough,” said Dr. McIntyre.
In November 2020, after his bout with depression, Bruno Guevremont travelled from his home in Victoria, B.C. to Field Trip Health, in Toronto – for orally administered ketamine treatment.
While ketamine’s anti-depressant effects are well documented, therapists at Field Trip Health also aim to maximize the psychedelic qualities of the drug and combine it with psychotherapy.
“The transformation doesn’t happen within the session itself. That happens before and after, when you are working on your trauma, when you’re actually making sense of it,” said Guevremont.
In 2020, Health Canada approved a ketamine-derived nasal spray for treatment-resistant depression and has allowed off-label use of the drug when administered intravenously or orally by health care professionals.
But a host of other illegal psychedelics and party drugs are also being studied for their therapeutic value. Among them, psilocybin, the psychoactive ingredient in magic mushrooms. Clinical trials with psilocybin have shown an improvement in symptoms for patients battling a range of disorders including depression and anxiety.
Though scheduled as a controlled substance, in 2020 Health Canada started offering what are known as Section 56 exemptions to patients with end-of-life distress so they could undergo therapeutic sessions with the drug.
Meanwhile, clinics that treat depression with ketamine are opening up across Canada. There are currently at least 12 private facilities and several hospital-based programs.
But ketamine treatments are not a “cure” or even suitable for everyone with mood disorders. Patients may be ineligible for treatment if they exhibit a history of psychosis, hypertension or substance abuse.
A typical ketamine treatment regimen involves 4 to 6 sessions over a two-to three-week period. Patients often need booster doses and the long term effects are still unclear, though researchers say there is little evidence to support addiction to the drug when it’s administered under medical supervision.
Also, the cost of private treatment isn’t cheap — $750 per ketamine session and $250 for each psychotherapy appointment at Field Trip Health, and approximately $850 per intravenous infusion at the CRTCE.
But for patients like Bruno Guevremont, treatments with ketamine have offered a renewed outlook.
“Life is actually enjoyable, which is amazing,” he said. “I didn’t want to be here. Now I do.”
Story from – CTV website
Music an essential part of psilocybin assisted therapy, research suggests
Liam O’Dowd – October 6, 2021
Danish scientists at the European College Of Neuropsychopharmacology have found that psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, significantly changes the emotional state of people listening to music.
Psilocybin assisted therapy is being developed as a treatment for depression and other mental health conditions, with pre-selected music playlists being a common feature in therapy settings. The study, to be presented at the ECNP Congress in Lisbon, shows that enhanced emotional processing may be a positive outcome of combining psilocybin with music, suggesting that music should be an active component of psilocybin therapy.
In the study, 20 healthy participants were tested on their emotional response to music before and after given psilocybin. 14 of these participants were also tested after being given ketanserin, an anti-hypertension drug commonly used as a comparison in psychedelic experiments. Whether ketanserin or psilocybin was given first was randomly selected and each person was thus able to report on the changes effected by both psilocybin and ketanserin. At the peak of drug effects, participants listened to a short music program and rated their emotional response.
Lead researcher Associate Professor Dea Siggaard Stenbæk said: “We found that psilocybin markedly enhanced the emotional response to music, when compared to the response before taking the drugs. On the measurement scale we used, psilocybin increased the emotional response to music by around 60%. This response was even greater when compared to ketanserin. In fact, we found that ketanserin lessens the emotional response to music. This shows that [the] combination of psilocybin and music has a strong emotional effect, and we believe that this will be important for the therapeutic application of psychedelics if they are approved for clinical use. Psilocybin is under development as a drug to treat depression, and this work implies that music needs to be considered as a therapeutic part of the treatment.
“Our next step is to look at the effect of music on the brain while under the influence of psilocybin in data material we have already collected, using an MRI”.
While the results of the study are unlikely to surprise any recreational user of psychedelic drugs, it is significant in the development of clinical settings for psilocybin assisted therapy. Commenting on the study Professor David Nutt of Imperial College, London said: “This is further evidence of the potential of using music to facilitate treatment efficacy with psychedelics. What we need to do now is optimise this approach probably through individualising and personalising music tracks in therapy”.
The emotional response to the music in the study was rated according to the Geneva Emotional Music Scale. The music used was a short programme comprising Elgar’s Enigma Variations no 8 and 9, and Mozart’s Laudate Dominum, together lasting around 10 minutes. Interstingly, Elgar was encouraged to write some of the music used as a way out of depression by his close friend Augustus Jaeger. “We’re pleased to see it used again to help understand more about mental health” Professor Stenbæk added.
Story from Leafie UK
Alison Myrden submits to the Minister of Health a s. 56 application to grow 50 grams/ day of psilocybin mushrooms
Cannabis & Psychedelics Law Group LLP have submitted a s. 56 application on behalf of Alison Myrden to the Minister of Health seeking a 50 grams/ day exemption which would also allow Ms. Myrden to grow her own psilocybin. Henria Stephens has done some terrific work in assisting with this application.
Ms. Myrden suffers from Bilateral Trigeminal Neuralgia which is a vicious condition that causes chronic and excruciating pain on both sides of her face, as well as painful facial tics. The trigeminal nerve is the source of the pain. It leads to eye pain that causes cluster migraines. Some sufferers describe it as getting electric shocks to the face. This condition “is one of the most characteristic and difficult to treat neuropathic pain conditions in patients with multiple sclerosis.” It has caused her to suffer from severe facial pain 24 hours a day which starts as soon as she is conscious in the mornings.
Ms. Myrden also suffers from Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS) which is the worst type of MS. Her MS has gotten worse and worse. She suffers from constant nerve pain, fatigue, balance issues, vision problems and speech problems. The psilocybin helps with all of these.
Ms. Myrden has tried a long list of drugs and treatments. Many of these drugs have caused further health problems. Cannabis has helped. However, nothing is as effective at reducing the pain as psilocybin. This is similar to the cluster headache sufferers who have obtained relief through psilocybin. Ms. Myrden requires 50 grams of psilocybin mushrooms a day. She has developed somewhat of a tolerance to psilocybin mushrooms so she needs a bit more than the average person. She also needs psilocybin mushrooms all through the day as her pain is with her all through the day.
Ms. Myrden is seeking to grow her psilocybin herself. Psilocybin mushrooms do not grow in the wild where Ms. Myrden lives. Also, she is cautious about inadvertently picking mushrooms that are unsafe for human consumption. She would prefer to have control over her medicine. At the Ontario Court of Appeal found in Hitzig v. Canada, the right to use a drug is useless without a legal supply.
The decision to grant a s. 56 exemption must be made in a manner consistent with the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Supreme Court of Canada, in PHS Community Services Society v. Canada 2011 SCC 44, at para. 117, said
The discretion vested in the Minister of Health is not absolute: as with all exercises of discretion, the Minister’s decisions must conform to the Charter: Suresh v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship & Immigration), 2002 SCC 1,  1 S.C.R. 3 (S.C.C.). If the Minister’s decision results in an application of the CDSA that limits the s. 7 rights of individuals in a manner that is not in accordance with Charter, then the Minister’s discretion has been exercised unconstitutionally.
Ms. Myrden believes the Minister of Health will do the right thing and grant Ms. Myrden an exemption. As various courts have held over the years, no person should have to choose between their health and the law.
Alison gets great relief from Psilocybin found in various types of “Magic Mushrooms” …
Possessing And Cultivating Psychedelics Would Be Legalized In Michigan Under New Senate Bill
Michigan senators on Thursday introduced a bill to legalize the possession, cultivation and delivery of an array of plant- and fungus-derived psychedelics like psilocybin and mescaline.
The legislation, sponsored by Sens. Jeff Irwin (D) and Adam Hollier (D), would amend state statute to exempt people from criminal penalties for such activities so long as they are not “receiving money or other valuable consideration for the entheogenic plant or fungus.”
As such, commercial production and sales would not be legalized under the measure.
The legislation does clarify, however, that people can charge a “reasonable fee for counseling, spiritual guidance, or a related service that is provided in conjunction with the use of an entheogenic plant or fungus under the guidance and supervision of an individual providing the service.”
Irwin said in a tweet that “decriminalization of entheogenic substances makes sense.”
“There is medicinal value. These plants and fungi have religious significance. And these substances are relatively safe and not prone to abuse,” he said. “Let’s stop wasting time and money making more victims of the War on Drugs.”
The list of entheogenic substances that are covered under the proposal includes plants and fungi that naturally produce DMT, ibogaine, mescaline, psilocybin and psilocyn.
Notably, the inclusion of mescaline doesn’t specifically prohibit the substance from being derived from the cacti peyote, despite some concerns about overharvesting that have been raised by indigenous groups and have led to that specific plant being left out of other reform proposals across the country.
Michigan has become a unique hub for the psychedelics movement, with local chapters of the group Decriminalize Nature pushing their city councils to adopt reforms.
The Ann Arbor, Michigan City Council approved entheogenic decriminalization last year—and in July, local lawmakers passed a resolution to officially designate September as Entheogenic Plants and Fungi Awareness Month.
Efforts are also underway in Grand Rapids to enact a policy change for the psychedelic substances.
But the new bill, SB 631, is the latest example of how this local movement is expanding and reaching state lawmakers.
A California senator advanced a bill to legalize the possession of psychedelics through the Senate and two Assembly committees, but he recently put the effort on pause until next year to generate additional buy-in.
Activists in California are also hoping to place an initiative before voters in 2022 to legalize the possession and sale of psilocybin. And a legislative analysis of the proposal that was released this week found that it would reduce costs associated with enforcing laws against the substance.
Oregon voters approved a first-of-its-kind initiative last year to legalize psilocybin for therapeutic use alone.
Meanwhile, Denver activists who successfully led a 2019 campaign to make the city the first in the U.S. to decriminalize psilocybin possession have their eyes set on broader reform, with plans in the works to end the criminalization of noncommercial gifting and communal use of the psychedelic.
Massachusetts cities that have enacted the policy change are: Northampton, Somerville and Cambridge. In July, state lawmakers heard testimony about a bill to create a task force charged with studying the implications of legalizing psychedelics like psilocybin and ayahuasca.
The governor of Connecticut recently signed legislation recently that includes language requiring the state to carry out a study into the therapeutic potential of psilocybin mushrooms.
Texas also recently enacted a bill to require the state study the medical benefits of psychedelics for military veterans.
A New York lawmaker introduced a bill in June that would require the state to establish an institute to similarly research the medical value of psychedelics.
In Oakland, the first city where a city council voted to broadly deprioritize criminalization of entheogenic substances, lawmakers approved a follow-up resolution in December that calls for the policy change to be adopted statewide and for local jurisdictions to be allowed to permit healing ceremonies where people could use psychedelics.
After Ann Arbor legislators passed a decriminalization resolution last year, a county prosecutor announced that his office will not be pursuing charges over possessing entheogenic plants and fungi—“regardless of the amount at issue.”
The Aspen, Colorado City Council discussed the therapeutic potential of psychedelics like psilocybin and proposals to decriminalize such substances at a meeting in May. But members said, as it stands, enacting a reform would be more better handled at the state level while entheogens remain strictly federally controlled.
Seattle lawmakers also recently sent a letter to members of a local task force focused on the opioid overdose epidemic, imploring the group to investigate the therapeutic potential of psychedelics like ayahuasca and ibogaine in curbing addiction. In response, the task force on issued a recommendation for the widespread decriminalization of all drugs. The group said psychedelics in particular could represent a promising treatment to address substance abuse disorders and mental health issues.
Meanwhile, Portland, Oregon activists are mounting a push to have local lawmakers pass a resolution decriminalizing the cultivation, gifting and ceremonial use of a wide range of psychedelics.
In a setback for advocates, the U.S. House of Representatives recently voted against a proposal from Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY) that would have removed a spending bill rider that advocates say has restricted federal funds for research into Schedule I drugs, including psychedelics such as psilocybin, MDMA and ibogaine. However, it picked up considerably more votes this round than when the congresswoman first introduced it in 2019.
Report provisions of separate, House-passed spending legislation also touch on the need to expand cannabis and psychedelics research. The panel urged the National Institute On Drug Abuse (NIDA) to support expanded marijuana studies, for example. It further says that federal health agencies should pursue research into the therapeutic potential of psychedelics for military veterans suffering from a host of mental health conditions.
When it comes to broader drug policy reform, Oregon voters also approved an initiative in November to decriminalize possession of all drugs. This year, the Maine House of Representatives passed a drug decriminalization bill, but it later died in the Senate.
In May, lawmakers in Congress filed the first-ever legislation to federally decriminalize possession of illicit substances.
Story from Marijuana Moment
A comprehensive overview of psilocybin legality
Jeff C – February 16, 2020
Psilocybin is the active psychotropic compound found in mushrooms of the Psilocybe genus and a few others, frequently referred to as “magic mushrooms” or “shrooms”. The over 200 species that comprise these genera can be found growing naturally throughout the world on every continent with the exception of Antarctica.
These mushrooms are one of the most commonly known and universally recognized psychedelics – substances that induce a profound altered state of consciousness and are beginning to be recognized for their positive effects on overall mental health, and the symptoms of many psychological conditions. Despite the promising research regarding their safety and efficacy as atreatment for psychological conditions, and their long (not to mention safe) history of use by indigenous peoples, they are illegal in the majority of countries – with a few notable exceptions.
The legality of psilocybin, and the fungi that contain it
Psilocybin (the molecule) and psilocybin-containing fungi are NOT synonymous from a legal perspective. Prohibition of the psilocybin molecule was catalyzed by the UN’s 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, a meeting that aimed to suppress the rising popularity of psychedelic drugs like psilocybin, LSD, and MDMA during the 1960’s.
The convention placed psilocybin in Schedule I, the most restrictive category (defined as having serious risk to public health, with no therapeutic value). However, the convention neglected to precisely define the legality of mushrooms or fungal mycelium containing the substance, and included a clause (Article 32) allowing nations to exempt certain traditional uses of substances from prohibition.
The convention neglecting to ban both psilocybin and psilocybin-containing mushrooms was perhaps an unintentional oversight, and therefore left the decision to prohibit the mushrooms up to member countries, many of whom applied differing legal interpretations and did not outrightly ban the mushrooms (although all agreed to prohibit the compound psilocybin).
This discrepancy has led to multiple loopholes and a confusing double standard that is in need of clarification and rectification, especially now after promising study results regarding the substance. This article serves to address these loopholes, and provide an overview of the current legal status of psilocybin and psilocybin-containing fungi worldwide.
Psilocybin legal status in the United States
The American Psychotropic Substances Act lists psilocybin and psilocybin-containing mushrooms in Schedule I (defined as having a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in treatment, and a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug under medical supervision) however there are notable exceptions.
It is legal in most states to purchase magic mushroom spores (“for research and microscopy purposes”), and legal to grow them in New Mexico — there is even a recognized religious group in this state which uses the mushrooms for sacramental purposes.
Recently there has been a nationwide push for decriminalization, led by cities such as Denver, Oakland, and Santa Cruz which have all decriminalized the picking and personal possession of psilocybin-containing mushrooms and other entheogenic substances (with the cultivation for commercial purpose and sale of these substances remaining illegal).
Activists in over 100 additional localities have initiated similar measures, while political figures like Andrew Yang and Rep. Alexandria Oscatio-Cortez have also declared support for policy reform around psychedelics.
Psilocybin legal status in Canada
Canada’s laws around psilocybin (the molecule) are mostly congruent with the UN Psychotropic Substances Act, however they classify the substance as schedule III (defined as posing some risks to public health in some situations). The legal landscape surrounding magic mushrooms and psilocybin in Canada (and most other countries) is rather hypocritical, and laws are lightly enforced.
It’s legal to purchase spores and pre-inoculated grow kits, legal to pick and possess fresh psilocybin-containing mushrooms, but illegal to possess dried mushrooms. Laissez-faire enforcement has spurred the creation of many small businesses offering mushrooms and mushroom infused products online. The most publicized case of this being pot activist Dana Larsen’s online Medicinal Mushroom Dispensary — he’s also set to open a storefront in Vancouver Q1 2020).
There is also a clause in the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Section 56) which exempts substances from illegality if medically necessary. A group of therapists in Canada (Thera-psil) have appealed to Health Canada for psilocybin to be exempted from illegality under this clause.
Psilocybin legal status in the United Kingdom
British law regarding the molecule psilocybin is consistent with the UN Psychotropic substances act. However, up until 2005, the possession and even sale of magic mushrooms were fully legal. The Misuse of Drugs Act amendment of 2005 rectified this discrepancy and made the possession, sale, and cultivation of these fungi illegal.
The UK now has more restrictive laws in this area than most other countries — perhaps a rebound effect — with the sale of mushroom spores and inoculated grow kits being illegal as well.
Psilocybin legal status in The Netherlands
Psilocybin (the compound) and magic mushrooms are both illegal in The Netherlands, however many ‘smart shops’ — specialized in ethnobotanical products — profit from one of the most widely known loopholes in the Dutch Drug Misuse Act.
Fungi consist of two main portions, mycelium and fruiting bodies. The Drug Misuse Act lists only the mushrooms as illegal, however it does not include the mycelium of the fungi which also contains psilocybin under certain conditions. Mycelial clumps or “Magic Truffles, along with spores and inoculated grow kits are sold throughout the netherlands.
Psilocybin legal status in Austria
Austria decriminalized the possession of psilocybin-containing mushrooms in January 2016. Offenders caught in possession of personal-use amounts will have to undergo a free therapy program instead of a trial. Cultivation is technically legal as long as the mushrooms are not intended for use as a drug. Grow kits and spores can be legally purchased, however the sale and possession of large amounts of dried magic mushrooms is still illegal.
Psilocybin legal status in Mexico
Both psilocybin and magic mushrooms are illegal in Mexico, however authorities often turn a blind eye to personal use, citing Article 32 of the UN Psychotropic Substances Act which states that exemptions can be made for religious or sacramental use.
Psilocybin legal status in Brazil
Psilocybin (the molecule) is illegal in Brazil, however magic mushrooms are legal to possess, cultivate, and distribute in all forms.
Psilocybin legal status in The British Virgin Islands
Psilocybin (the molecule) is illegal in the BVI, however naturally-occurring magic mushrooms are legal to pick and possess. The sale of psilocybin-containing mushrooms is prohibited, but laws are loosely enforced and they are openly sold throughout the country.
Psilocybin legal status in The Bahamas
Psilocybin (the molecule) and magic mushrooms are fully legal to cultivate, possess, and sell in the Bahamas
Psilocybin legal status in Cambodia
Psilocybin (the molecule) and psilocybin-containing mushrooms are illegal in Cambodia, however laws are loosely enforced, especially in tourist areas.
Psilocybin legal status in the Czech Republic
Psilocybin (the molecule) is illegal in the Czech Republic however magic mushrooms are decriminalized and cultivation is allowed for personal use. Possession of large quantities, and the sale of dried mushrooms, is still illegal but loosely enforced.
Psilocybin legal status in Iceland
Psilocybin (the molecule) and dried magic mushrooms are illegal in Iceland, while picking and possession of fresh mushrooms is allowed.
Psilocybin legal status in India
Psilocybin (the molecule) and magic mushrooms are technically illegal in India. However, the laws are loosely enforced due to many police departments being unaware of the prohibition.
Psilocybin legal status in Israel
Psilocybin (the molecule) and magic mushrooms are illegal in Israel for the purpose of personal use. However, the purchase of spores and inoculated grow kits “for research or microscopy purposes” are allowed.
Psilocybin legal status in Italy
Psilocybin (the molecule) is illegal in Italy. However, magic mushrooms are decriminalized; grow kits and spores are also legal to buy, sell and possess.
Psilocybin legal status in Laos
Psilocybin (the molecule) and magic mushrooms are illegal in Laos. However, laws are loosely enforced, especially in tourist areas.
Psilocybin legal status in Portugal
The Drug policy of Portugal has decriminalized possession of all drugs.
Psilocybin legal status in Samoa
Psilocybin (the molecule) and magic mushrooms are legal in Samoa. However, there are government plans to make both illegal.
Psilocybin legal status in Spain
Psilocybin (the molecule) is illegal in Spain. However, the consumption of magic mushrooms is decriminalized. The cultivation and sale of psilocybin-containing mushrooms is still illegal. The legality of spores and grow kits are ambiguous and prosecution is dependent on intent.
Psilocybin legal status in Thailand
Psilocybin (the molecule) and magic mushrooms are illegal in Thailand. However, laws are loosely enforced, especially in tourist areas.
Psilocybin remains globally illegal
Any country not listed in this article has no ambiguity on the illegality of psilocybin or magic mushrooms in any form (including spores). Hopefully, in light of shifting public sentiment worldwide and promising research, this will soon change. Over the last 20 years (since the first post-drug-war psilocybin study was approved at Johns Hopkins University) the stigma and misinformation around psychedelics have been steadily decreasing.
We believe that within the next 20 years, psilocybin will become both legal and commonplace as a treatment for psychological conditions, and as a tool for personal growth.
Article from – Psillow
Sarah Whites-Koditschek, al.com
Psychedelic drugs creating hopes for breakthroughs in depression, anxiety, pain and addiction are being tested at UAB. The university is one of a handful in the nation conducting trials with psilocybin, the active ingredient in hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Researchers at the University of Alabama in Birmingham do not know exactly what effect the isolated drug molecules from mushrooms have on the brains of people suffering from such maladies, but studies have shown promising results.
“My own hypothesis is that when, in the right circumstances, someone ingests a classic psychedelic, they experience an emotion we know of as awe,” said UAB’s Dr. Peter Hendricks, professor of public health, who is conducting trials to see whether psilocybin can help people overcome cocaine addiction.
“(Awe) fills you with a feeling of wonder and amazement in this moment, the stimulus, this vast thing outside of your understanding. It captures every ounce of your attention, and because it’s so outside of your understanding of reality, it ultimately requires that you change the way you view reality.”
Nationally, the pharmaceutical industry is ramping up investments in psilocybin in anticipation of eventual FDA approval, and major publications are hypothesizing a “shroom boom” in the United States.
According to Hendricks, psilocybin connects different regions of the brain in new ways, disrupting ruminative thinking in the default mode network, the part of the brain that engages in unfocused activities.
A national movement to legalize psilocybin is gaining momentum.
Oregon legalized the use of psilocybin therapy last year. Denver and Washington, D.C. have decriminalized the drug, and other proposals to legalize or decriminalize it have been put forward in the legislatures of Florida, Maine, Hawaii and California.
Last month, the director of the National Institutes of Health told the U.S. Senate he believes psilocybin holds promise for mental health treatment.
“There has been a resurgence of interest in psychedelic drugs, which for a while were sort of considered not an area that researchers legitimately ought to go after,” said Francis Collins, Director of the National Institutes of Health. “And I think as we’ve learned more about how the brain works, we’ve begun to realize that these are potential tools for research purposes and might be clinically beneficial.”
“I think the support and interest in the scientific community is really growing,” said Hendricks.
There is anthropological research going back tens of thousands of years showing humans have used hallucinogenic mushrooms, said Hendricks.
“I think even the earliest humans realized there’s something about psilocybin, and it’s not just a recreational good time, it’s something else, it’s something much more serious, much more potent, and in fact, in many cases, it was considered quite sacred.”
Psilocybin mushrooms induce a spiritual experience that expands people’s perception of reality and deepens their sense of meaning, said Hendricks. That can help people with ruminative, tunnel focused, obsessive thought processes, hallmarks of depression, anxiety, chronic pain and drug addiction.
“Suddenly your horizons are broadened, and broadened tremendously, and you’re thinking about something other than obtaining or using that drug (or worrying about your pain),” he said.
“It’s as though you’ve taken a step outside of yourself, and you’re able to perhaps see some patterns that you might not have otherwise seen, or you might have some insights you might not have otherwise had when you were in the state of tunnel vision.”
In his research at UAB, Hendricks found such changes appear to have lasting effects.
“Those randomized to receive psilocybin reported significantly fewer days of cocaine use compared to those who were randomized to receive the placebo,” he said about unblinding the first 10 participants in his study on cocaine addiction.
The first wave of exploration into hallucinogenic mushrooms in the United States began in the 1950′s when a New York City banker with a mycology hobby named R. Gordon Wasson traveled to Oaxaca Mexico to try psychedelic mushrooms with an indigenous “curandera”, or healer, named Maria Sabina, Hendricks said.
Wasson published an account of his experience in Life Magazine, setting off a wave of interest in hallucinogenic drugs that included Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert at Harvard, and eventually turned to LSD, a synthetic substance derived from fungus.
“LSD was sort of the primary psychedelic that was studied at a time, and a number of scientists and clinicians and the like were really quite excited. They noticed in themselves and their patients and their participants some pretty profound changes for the better,” said Hendricks.
But that era of experimentation came to an abrupt halt after about a decade, stopping exploration into possible uses for the drugs. Psychedelics were associated with counterculture, the protests against the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement. They came to be perceived as a threat by political leaders like Richard Nixon, said Hendricks.
In 1970 LSD and psilocybin were designated as Schedule 1 substances by the United States Drug Enforcement Agency, a category reserved for the most dangerous and harmful substances with high potential for addiction and abuse. Such a designation limited researchers’ ability to study the therapeutic potential and safety of mushrooms.
Dr. Hendricks said that void of research has begun to be addressed in recent years, as scientists have identified that psilocybin is not addictive and is relatively safe. People can experience “bad trips” on the drug, and it is not advised for those with a family history of schizophrenia because it has been known to precipitate a mental break for people with such a genetic propensity.
Dr. Hendricks decided to seek approval for trials with psilocybin after reading a 2006 landmark paper on the uses of psilocybin for mystical experiences that increase spiritual meaning. At the time, he was observing the failure rate of people trying to quit smoking, about 70 percent.
“My thought was, this could be a game changer. Maybe here’s something that could really boost the effectiveness of our existing treatments. I don’t know for certain, but there’s this really interesting trend here.”
The search for new ways to combat persistent mental health issues is partly a response to a trend of growing psychological problems in the United States, even prior to COVID-19.
In 2018, 19 percent of Americans had a mental health disorder, an increase of 1.5 million over the previous year, according to a study by the group Mental Health America.
Now UAB also plans to test the usefulness of shrooms on people with chronic pain conditions, such as fibromyalgia and opioid addiction.
“It has a very, very, very good safety profile, but like anything, it is not harmless or without risk. It certainly does confer risks,” said Hendricks of psilocybin, “but I myself would be much more concerned about alcohol consumption.”
Go to MSN.com